Space Microbiology: Modern Research and Advantages for Human Colonization on Mars
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Astromicrobiology or exomicrobiology, is the study of microorganisms in outer space. Microorganisms in outer space are most wide spread form of life on Earth, and are capable of colonising any environment, this article usually focus on microbial life in the field of astrobiology. Microorganisms exhibit high adaptability to extreme environments of outer space via phenotypic and genetic changes. These changes may affect astronauts in the space environment as well as on earth because mutant microbes will inevitably return with the spacecraft. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of microbes in outer space are discussed. We all know that outer space is extreme and very complex environment, microorganisms readily adapt to changes in environmental variables, such as weightlessness, cosmic radiation, temperature, pressure and nutrient levels, and these microorganisms exhibit a variety of morphological and physiological changes. Space conditions may significantly increase the mutation frequency of certain genes in microorganisms, which could allow the cultivation of the bacterial mutants, followed by screening of the bacteria for large scale production. Also we can extract microbial secondary metabolites as medicine, flavouring and nutritional drugs. This article provides the planetary exploration and also provides the microbial observatory program on ISS. The aim of this article will also help us to determine the benefits of bacteria and other microorganisms in case of “Human colonization on Mars”.
The ISS as a Microbial Observatory, Planetary Exploration, Discoveries, Experiments, Microbes Tested in Outer Space, Extremophiles, Antibiotic and Food Production in Outer Space, Alcohol Production by Bacteria in Outer Space, Changes in Bacterial Invasion, Changes in Bacterial Adaptability in Environment, Changes in Antibiotic Resistance, Advantages of Space Microbiology for Human Colonization on Mars, Benefits on Microbial Observatory on ISS, and Multipurpose Facilities Available on ISS.